General Information

Official Name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Area: 652,230 sq km


Population: approx. 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.)

Official Languages: Pashto language, Farsi, Eastern Language

Currency: Afghan afghani

Government: Democratic Islamic Republic 

President: Hamid Karzai

Vice Presidents: Mohammed Fahim, Karim Khalili 

Chief Justice: Abdul Salam Azimi

September 11th, 2001Edit

On September 21st, 2011 terrorists from Al-Qaeda suicide bombed the world trade center in New York[1]. The terrorist group Al-Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden had been plotting the attack from their bases in Afghanistan. Since the attack Afghanistan has been seen around the world as a hub for terrorists. 


Osama bin Laden (left) and Ayman al-Zawahiri (right). Both were in close contact with Mullah Omar the former leader of the Taliban.

With this came racial profiling and prejudices throughout the world. Afghanistan has been deemed a helpless country that many European nations have decided it is their right to try and help. To add to this George Bush, the acting president of the United States then led the Global War on Terrorism[2]. Many governments started funding military operations, economic measures and political pressure on groups that it accused of being Terrorists, they also invaded Afghanistan on their own rights to fight a war on terrorism. Many groups in Pakistan have pointed out that the Afghanistan conflict has been helping the continued de-stabilization of the neighboring nation of Pakistan. Other countries around the world also felt the impact, which caused them to freeze bank accounts that were suspected of being used for terrorism[3]. Law enforcement agencies all over the world have arrested suspected terrorists.With the terrorist group the Taliban pushing George Bush, he declared a War on Terror campaign.

U.S. Intervention of Afghanistan Edit

Following the shocking terrorist attacks on September 11th of 2001, intervention of NATO and allied forces, 

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U.S. Troops being deployed into Afghanistan.

one of which being the United States, caused the eruption of the War in Afghanistan. The war, which began in 2001 and is still ongoing, was initiated due to an effort from the U.S. to dismantle al-Qaeda and overthrow the Taliban out of power. Not only has the ongoing war killed hundreds of soldiers across the nation, but between 2001 and 2011, it is estimated that around 12,000 to 15,000 civilians lost their lives.

After almost 3000 men and women were killed during the terrorist attack on the twin towers, U.S. President George Bush demanded that the Taliban hand over Osama bin Laden and expel al-Qaeda. Although they had requested bin Laden to leave the nation, they claimed that they could not simply force him out of Afghanistan without solid proof of his involvement in the 9/11 attacks. Frustrated and upset, the U.S. refused to negotiate and launched Operation Enduring Freedom. The U.S., joined with other allied nations such as the United Kingdom, drove the Taliban away from power and scattered military bases near major cities all across the nation.[4] Some extremist al-Qaeda and Taliban members were captured, but almost all fled to Pakistan in retreat. [5]


Taliban member captured by U.S. troops in Afghanistan.

In the year of 2001, after both Mazar-i-Sharif, Kabul and Herat had been taken over by the U.S. and allied forces, Kandahar became the last major city under Taliban control. Kandahar was the birthplace of the Taliban movement and was where its power base was located, and so it was considered as a very big city for the Taliban. For this reason, the capturing of Kandahar seemed near impossible. Finally after several weeks of bloodshed conflict, the retreat of Taliban out of Kandahar signaled the end of organized Taliban control of Afghanistan. Although the Taliban were now no longer “officially” in Afghanistan, they’re presence from neighboring nations was still great and without greatly organized Afghani military, the United States have decided to stay for another year until the year 2015. During this time, they have been training the military as well as insuring that the Taliban does not regain control over Afghanistan. [6]

Formation of the New Parliament  

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Hamid Karzai(left) with United States President Barack Obama(right)

Hamid Karzai was the son of the chief of the Popalzai Pashtuns. He worked with Muhjahideen who sought to overthrow the Soviet-backed government. When the communist government of Mohammad Najibullah was finally destroyed in April 1992. By late December 2001, he was sworn into office. By June 2002 a traditional Afghan assembly chose Karzai as the president of a transitional government. With the help of Hamid Karzai the new Afghanistan government was formed, by 2002 there was already a notable change in how the nation was working.

Areas that had very little backing before were starting to gain more and more progress such as education, health care, economy, and agriculture. With the new formation of a government the Taliban began to back off and they started to move their base of operations to the neighboring nation of Pakistan.  He sought to rebuild Afghanistan and in January 2004 a new constitution was approved that called for a directly elected president. By 2009, Hamid Karzai was elected to be that president. With his new found power Karzai added rights for women, energy projects were coming online and the Afghan currency had been established[7]. On Febuary 23rd 21 Afghan army members were killed, they broguht with them 7 insurgents. However, Hamid Karzai's forces now protect 93% of the country and he hopes to make the U.S. and Nato forces leave so that his forces can take over completely[8].

Taliban Return Edit


Taliban Members of the Quetta Shura.

After being driven away from Kandahar by the United States and allied forces on December 7th, 2001, hope for the Taliban seemed lost. However, even after losingformal control over Afghanistan, the Taliban have continued to create pressure on both the United States and its allied forces. Since 2001, they have consistently attempted at regaining land and influence within Afghanistan. In 2002, after being thrown out of their home nation, the Taliban searched and recruited members in the Pashtun areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan, and set up small training camps where recruits were trained in guerrilla tactics. 

The Taliban soon realized that Western nations were more focused on Iraq than Afghanistan, now that the Taliban had been forced out, and seized the opportunity to reassert themselves. While Taliban leader, Mullah Omar, was in hiding, the Quetta Shura, a Pakistan-based militant organization which included the Taliban’s top leadership, went forth and began the insurgency. Because so many Taliban members had fled to areas in Pakistan, the Quetta Shura had become a big group and were rising as a major threat towards Afghanistan and the Western nations. 


Taliban IED explosion in Afghanistan.

During their fight to regain power of Afghanistan, the Taliban adopted a new terror tactic, which involved the use of suicide bombings and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Although before the year 2004, suicide bombings were a rarity in Afghanistan, six attacks were launched by the Taliban that year. In 2005, an increasing number of 21 attacks, and in 2006, a shocking 141 suicide bombing attacks have lead to a total of 1,166 casualties. The Taliban have not only aimed their anger towards the military and civilians, but have also had various attempts at killing the President of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai. In September 2004, the Taliban aimed a rocket towards a helicopter carrying President Karzai. Although missing its target, it nearly cost Afghanistan it’s Presidents life and alarmed the nation, as well many Western allies over the rise of the Taliban. [9]

The Taliban have been persistent in their movement forward towards regaining power of Afghanistan. They have been slow, but successful and have even formed a Taliban-led shadow government within Afghanistan. [10] They continue to put stress upon the U.S. and their allies and to this day, make advancements back into their nation. 

Osama Bin Laden Edit

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Osama Bin Laden

In his early life he was influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood, a terrorist group from Egypt. They offered exta-curricular Islam lessons. In those lessons Osama Bin Laden met Abdullah Azzam, a palestinian born professor who is a founder of Hamas which is a Palestinian terrorist group. After 1979 and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Azzam chose Bin Laden to raise money and recruit Arabs to help the Muslims push back against the Soviets. In the 1980's Ayman Al Zawahiri the leader of Islamic Jihad played a massive role in the development of Osama Bin Laden's terrorist group, Al Qaeda[11]. In the early 1980's Bin Laden worked with the Mujahideen, as a guerrilla fighter against the Soviets in Afghanistan from 1986 until 1988. By 1988 Bin Laden had formed Al-Qaeda, ten years later he formed the Islamic front for Jihad against the Jew's and Crusaders, a group of terrorist groups intending to wage war against Americans and battle their Middle Eastern military presence. After founding Al-Qaeda his objectives were to eliminate the Western presence in the Islamic Middle East and establishing Islamic regimes[12].

Military Intervention Withdrawl Edit

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A US soldier (left) speaks to Afghan soldiers at Camp Hero in Kandahar Province Afghanistan

On February 25, 2014 The United States President Barack Obama ordered the pentagon to plan for a full out withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan.. Obama has talked to Afghanistan president Hamid Karzai, however, the Afghanistan president has refused to sign an accord that would allow for a U.S. military presence to remain in Afghanistan.The conversation between Obama and Karzai was allegedly set off by an urgent need to provide clarity for the U.S. Nato allies.[13] U.S. defense secretary Chuck Hagel has said that a full withdrawal of 37,000 U.S troop’s in Afghanistan would take time and that to ensure that adequate plans are in place to accomplish an orderly withdrawal. Since November, 2014 the Pentagon has been trying to push Afghanistan President Karzai towards signing the deal. However, the U.S. has been formally preparing for a ‘zero option’ or full withdrawal. U.S. military commander Joseph Dunford, is said to testify before the Senate armed services committee, fearing that a full U.S. departure after December, 2014 will leave Afghanistan open to hostile takeover from other, more extremist groups such as the Taliban[14].

U.S. cease withdrawl of Military Pressure Edit

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Abdullah Abdullah

After holding a military presence in Afghanistan for over 13 years, the United States decided to cease its military withdrawal. On January 9, 2015, the United States officially announced that Abdullah Abdullah had signed the Strategic Partnership Agreement, which would let the U.S. remain as a military presence in Afghanistan until further notice. Since the U.S. announced that it would no longer be withdrawing its troops from Afghanistan, there has been a large amount of aggravation from both the American public, as well as from the Afghanistan public. The large amount of aggression was predicted as the U.S. had said that all of its troops would leave by the year, 2014[15].

Abdullah Abdullah, after being elected to presidency has agreed that the military presence of the United States will be beneficial for both Afghan and American military forces. Abdullah Abdullah has been trying to keep peace in Afghanistan since his election, as many riots and protests have broken out in the recent years. However, the primary concern for both nations is still focussed heavily on the Taliban. Both nations have voiced concerns, and fear that the Taliban and Al-Qaeda will retaliate against the government and the public due to the new agreement between the two nations. This concern has pushed Afghani forces to act on a larger scale, causing for more financial and military aid necessary from the United States[16]. 

Terrorist and rebel groups warn the U.S. of retaliation against military violenceEdit

Following the signing of the Strategic Partnership Agreement, United States President, Barack Obama, and Afghanistan President, Abdullah Abdullah, have been put under major threat. Both leaders have received criticism, from the public, as well as the media, as families of the U.S. troops remain concerned, and the public of Afghanistan claim they feel “still under threat”. An immediate reaction was evident as soon as the pen was put to the paper in January of 2015, as re


Rebels burn U.S. flag as they march down streets of Kabul.

bel group, Al Qaeda have shown their frustrations toward the newly agreed deal. Al Qaeda leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri, released an official statement in February of 2015, stating the following. 

The United States do not understand what they have done. Keeping troops within our nation will only further cause issues. We understand that they are doing what they believe is best for the government and our nation, but we Afghani’s, we the people, want you out. Do what is right.” [17]

Between January of 2015 and October the same year, a reported 37 official government directed protests have been organized and carried out by sources with connections to Al Qaeda and the Taliban. During these protests, a reported 15 people have died, and over 70 were injured. [18]

On August 24th, 2015, the largest organized protest was held in the capital city of Afghanistan, Kabul. Over 2400 citizens, as well as members of the Taliban and other rebel groups, were seen marching through the streets, posing for oncoming news reporters as many were seen burning the flag of the United States. Amongst the large crowd, who chanted “Death to Americans, death to Abdullah” and “Withdrawal the terrorists”, was 36 year old Adeib Hafiza. This man, nicknamed “throat slitter”, became a viral hit all over the globe after he was seen on CNN live news as he walked by the camera, tongue out, with his thumb across hit throat, shouting “Let there be blood”. Hafiza, who has links to Al Qaeda, stated that the U.S. were to see trouble unless Obama sent home his troops once and for all. [19]

Al Qaeda take U.S. base hostageEdit


U.S. army Corporal Sam Dickson held hostage in released footage.

On January 4th, 2016, the United States stood in terror as four men of the U.S. army were captured and held hostage by members of Al Qaeda. 23 year old Sam Dickson, 29 year old Chris Hellings, 34 year old Sean Grady, and 25 year old Damon Martins were captured by 14 disguised men, around 8 miles off of Camp Dwyer, the base in which they were stationed. An immediate search and rescue operation was uncovered by the U.S. Delta Force on January 5th, 2016, with members of the Delta Force operating within Afghanistan flying over to the Garmsir District of Afghanistan, where the base is located. On January 7th, 2016, Al Qaeda member Najibullah al-Ressam was seen on released footage with a gun to Corporal Dickson’s head. Shouting violently and waving his gun, they demanded the following:

Americans! Listen! You leave our country. Give peace. If you want to retain the lives of these 4 men, you must go back to America. We the people, don’t want you here. We the people, don’t need you here. We the people, will kill you here. Every week, we will kill one of your men. If you need the time, every week, you will pay us one million U.S. dollars in return for another day to keep them alive. If you stay in our country, these four men won’t be the only ones put in this situation. Beware America. Your time is running out.” [20]

the video then went black, and a loud thud, followed by Corporal Dickson’s scream followed. 

On January 11th,2016, 23 Delta Force members broke into the compound in which, through tracking systems and video footage analysis, they believed was where the 4 soldiers had been held. After killing 9 of the 14 men, Sergeant Chris Hellings was shot dead by one of the members of the Al Qaeda, before Delta Force advanced to the back yard of the compound and shot down the following 5 members. 

Following the incident, on February 12th, 2016, Obama made a statement saying, “It’s been very tragic for myself, the families of the victims, and the nation. All I can say, is that we will think of our options.” [21]

Taliban Recognized as a part of Afghani GovernmentEdit

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Members of Afghani Government hold talks with Taliban Leaders.

After years of struggle and turmoil in Afghanistan, the government finally came to an agreement with the Taliban on May 6, 2019. This agreement stated that the Taliban would own part of the government and would have it's say almost all political matters. The agreement was signed by the Afghanistan government in an attempt to end the war and pain that the country has had to deal with. The Taliban is known for a harsh and highly religious rule over their territories. One of the main issues that the Afghanistan government has had with the Taliban, has been education in the Taliban owned territories. However, after months of debate, female education was finally required for all Taliban run territories.  A spearhead for this movement was Malala Yousafzai who personally felt the heavy hand of the Taliban back in October 2012 [22]. The government has also made sacrifices, as they have given the Taliban not only a voice and part in the governmental system, but they have also given the Taliban more territories. Following the agreement, the United States officially seized the acting power of the Strategic Partnership Agreement and have officially started to loosen ties with the Afghanistan government. While they remain a military presence, they have been on a heightened alert since the terrorist hostage attack in January of 2016. Afghanistan president Abdullah Abdullah, who once showed strong signs of wanting the U.S. to stay for much longer, has only shown optimism towards the Taliban joining the government as well as the Untied states pulling out after a military presence for 18 years. The Taliban have also had a strongly optimistic opinion towards the U.S pulling out. With the Taliban's new found voice in government, they have shown a strong interest of brining back pure Afghan culture. [23]

Taliban Murder Students To Send Message Edit

After being accepted into the government system in 2019, the Taliban retaliated, and showed their true colors once again, only 3 years later. On June 17, 2022 a group of Taliban members driving a car pulled up next to two schoolgirls walking home from school. They were both gunned down in cold blood by the rag-tag team of Taliban. The people and government of Afghanistan were not only shocked, but also disgusted at the violent murder. The murders were especially surprising as just three years ago, when the Taliban were made an official part of the government, they signed a document that stated that in return for them to allow girls go to school in Taliban run areas, the government would have to give them large amounts of government positions as well as more territories for the organization. While the Taliban states that the main body of the organization is upset with the fact that their fellow members murdered the innocent school girls, they stated, 

"Some people just aren't happy with other's opinions. We will talk with the government ove this very important issue". [24]

One member films, as the murderers pull up after spotting their victims.

A small faction of the Taliban is reported to have been rejoicing, as they felt that violencey was necessary. The murderers recorded their actions which depicted them not only making remarks at the young girls, but also showing them executing them. After the shooting, they sent a message to the main defense branch of the Afghanistan government stating that unless the Taliban received more power in the government, that the random acts of school girl murders would continue. In response, the Afghanistan government ordered for the Taliban leaders to give the names of the attackers so that they may face justice. However, the Taliban were uncooperative which raised even more concern in the government as they realized that they no longer had complete control over their nation. [25]

Sources Edit